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No More Mergers 

The big banks are buying up the little banks,

And the bigger banks, are buying up the big banks,

The biggest banks are buying up the bigger banks,

And then were told, "They're too big to fail."


For example, JPMorgan Chase Manhattan;

Purchased Washington Mutual in 2008.

After WAMU had previously purchased:

Another company's division for mortgages.


Can you say "JPMorgan Chase Manhattan - Washington Mutual - Fleet Boston Financial Corporation"?

That's a very conglomerated financial Institution. That markets itself with just the word chase.

©  Greg Spence Wolf

Updated 2/15/22 - Reviewed 31 times

Do All Lives (Really) Matter? 


Why didn't George Floyd's life matter to Derek Chauvin?

Do all lives matter in this country - If Black lives don't matter to the police?
If Derek Chauvin can choke a man to death with his knee.
While a crowd stood and filmed him as he did his violent deed.

While an EMT begged and pleaded 
For George Floyd's airwaves to be set free.
Why didn't Chauvin let George Floyd breathe.
He must have thought that he'd get off Scott free.
And he almost did. 
As the video went viral on the internet and aired on national TV.
While Chauvin avoided being an arrestee,
The mayor went on the air to plead
For Chauvin's arrest for his evil deed.
Do all lives really matter to the Minneapolis Police?
Did Derek Chauvin kill George Floyd 
To show his authority?
Did he think he'd be respected  
By his fellow police? 
Why it take a riot to get him arrested?
Do you really think all lives really matter?
Why do we even need one protest to get a murderer arrested? 
When a non-violent person 
----is killed by the police 
-------why are the police exempt from responsibility
Do Black Lives (really) matter in this country ? 
If they don't matter to the Minneapolis police.

Published May 25, 2020/Updated 1/4-5/2022





Photo by Greg Spence Wolf


Why didn't Trayvon Martin's Life Matter to george zimmerman?

Do all lives matter in this country
If Black Teen Lives don't matter to fake vigilantes?
If George Zimmerman can get away with murder,
Because he decided to manufacture,
A threat in his head, to justify his fetish,      for his gun.
How can you tell anyone - that all Lives matter . . .  in the USA?
If an unarmed teenager on his way home
Doesn't make it home.

I would like it to be known:
That we are not free country.
That we are not a land of liberty.
No we are a land of too many guns and petty tyranny.
Instead of a land of solidariity
Trayvon Martin was never a threat 
And George Zimmerman should be full of regret 
We should speak up for justice and never forget 
That we haven't reached equality yet.
Do all lives matter in Florida?
Do you really think that all lives matter in this country?

Why didn't Elijah McClain's life matter to aurora paramedics or the aurora police?

Elijah McClain Didn't Have a Gun 
Still Elijah McCalin was put in a cholk hold - twice,


So why didn't the authorities value his life.

Did this choking by policemen. lead to his death,
In Aurora, Colorado.

Maybe it did and probably it did but I can't be sure because there is another factor.

The Aurora policemen weren't the only questionable actors.

Because then paramedics "injected McClain with 500 mg of ketamine"

According to CPR.ORG /\...that's...a...bit...too...much.

They say that's "a dose that would have been,

....slightly too much ...............  for a 200-pound person."

While, "McClain weighed" only "143 pounds."

Tell me why is this shit going down.


Do all lives matter --- if this shit really happens --- in Colorado, really? (retrieved 1/5/2022)


Why didn't Breonna Taylor's life matter to the louisville metro police?

Why didn't Breonna Taylor's life matter - to - the - Louisville - metro - police?

Why wasn't Breona Taylor's life valued by Judge Mary Shaw,

. . . . . In the county of Jefferson;   Kentucky?

Why was a no knock warrant issued to the police by the court?

Please tell me?


Breonna Taylor didn't have a record and she wasn't wanted by the police.
Breona Taylor wasn't under aarrest 

So why is she dead, please tell me?

Why did her apartment come under attack?
When someone else was under arrest?
Someone else who had already been arrested?
Now do you understand why her death is protested?

If Breonna Taylor who didn't hurt anyone 
Who didn't have a record can be shot by a policeman


Do the police really think that all lives matter

And if they don't then why don't they think that all lives matter.?
Even though the report said she wasn’t a threat

The neighbors called the cops on the cops because they thought it was an attack, 
by someone other than the cops, 
It was an attack, but it was an attack by the cops 
  Who wanted to arrest a man who wasn't there. 
© Greg Spence Wolf  Updated 1/16/2022






How We Are Divided Politically 

     We are divided politically by people using the media to stir up fear and hate for the purposes benfitting themselves by putting themselves on top of the feud.

Most of the memes posted online by people are fed to them by Facebook in order to start arguments. They use emotionally charged talking points that don't encourage critical thinking but instead work to encourage blame.

One meme showed a veteran with an amputated foot.  It said, "I bet none of you kneelers are gonna get this vet a new leg."

  • It wasn't a link to a fundraiser. 
  • It wasn't an information picture about what injured vets need. 
  • It wasn't a critique of Colin Kapaernick. 

It was posted by my neighbor who is constantly drunk and looking for an argument. 

Memes that tap into your hurt feelings are looking for an argument, but not a constructive debatre. 

Memes that say, "I bet you won't share this." are looking for an argument, not to further a cause, not to raise money for a charity. 

It completely ignores the fact that Kapaernick's kneeling was about Treyvon Martin and other Black people murdered by bigots. Colin Kaepernick's kneeling is not an antiwar protest. 

Misinformation is being removed from Facebook, which might help. 

The other media source that intentionally divides people is Republican Party radio and Fox news.

They use:

Misinformation (Limbaugh denying COVID-19 and saying it was like the flu)


-When FOX News ranteed on and on during the weeks mleading up to the midterms, about immigrants who are refugees from extreme poverty and painting them as thugs. 

Encouraging Violence

-When Tucker Carlson makes an excuse for political violence done against people he disagrees with. Like his rationalization for Kyle Rittenhouse's shooting of non-violent Black Lives Matter protesters. 

It is hard ti debate politics when the people you are talking to think murder is okay against political protesters. 

MSNBC uses the script in less extreme ways against Republicans. 

I like when MSNBC interviews progressives like Warren and Sanders. 

But I hate their opinion pieces about Republicans that repeat an opinion for five minutes. 

And when they slam Trump for being weak on military. They are partisanly encouraging war. Not because we need to be at war, but because they want the other party to look bad to voters. 

When MSNBC does this, they sound like Republican partisans to me. I wish I could play the videos on both FOX and MSNBC for the opposing sides so they can see how they are being manipulated at specific times for specific reasons. 

We are so divided in our information that most Republicans don't know that during the Capitol Hill riot Trump was watching it on TV, and didn't call in the National Guard. Republicans who are elected to office feel they need their president to win so badly so that the party ticket can win and carry them to victory. This forces them to put party over country and the world and be more likely to allow a bad decision by their president to go uncritiqued. 

How do you have a debate when one side doesn't hold their leaders accountable for anything because they either don't want to do the intellectual work of understanding others. Or because people who own media have a vested interest in manipulating their emotions for partisan and or personal political gain.


When They Came For the Immigrants (Who Can't Vote) .... 


During the 2018 midterms the Republican party through Donald Trump, Lindsay Graham and FOX news and the Epoch Times. They ramped up scapegoating of immigrants, who conveniently  can't vote. 

 The Epoch Times listed immigrant crimes which is similar to  the way nazis published Jewish crimes. 

Immigrants are no more dangerous than other people. It's manufactured opinion that is used to rile up people. Some of these people feel they need to run off with their guns wherever their corporate media elites tell them to. In this case gun lovers announced they would go to the border to "Protect" us from a caravan labled an invasion.

They only care about this subject because they are fed propaganda.

 The Republican party, and it's presidential candidate, are scapegoating immigrants, who conveniently can't vote. I believe that this is a losing political strategy for the voting public. And the working class. I believe that the purpose of scapegoating immigrants is to make them more vulnerable to deportation and therefore easier to exploit.

     When they say scapegoating, I mean that they are unfairly generalizing about their behavior by listing and reporting their crimes in order to make them more threatening in the voting and purchasing public's perception. This is similar to  the way nazis published Jewish crimes. It's manufactured opinion that distorts public opinion of reality in order to benefit a small group of people's political and economic intrests. Some of these people are private prison owners.

CoreCivic, GEOgroup a nd the Corrections Corporation of America are the three biggest.

 If you believe that when the corporate media scapegoats immigrants on cable tv and talk radio. they are looking for someone to blame so that they can have  privately owned prisons that make people money.


 They allow people to be jailed for being immigrants. 

Then I am concerned that you'd have allowed people to  be jailed for being Jewish,  just as our grandparents in the United States of America allowed Japanese Americans to be locked up, thankfully not killed. 

All attacks against immigrants and people we can be convinced are unamerican, should be called out for what they really are, political and economic scapegoating. 

These attacks are done so we can keep Immigrants desperate for jobs and easily exploited in the workplace. Immigration restrictions make immigrants more desperate and more willing to hire others to smuggle them. Some smugglers take advantage of their employers and hand them over to human traffickers. This benefits employers like Mar a Lago which employs immigrants. 

© Greg Spence Wolf 9/12/2020


      I believe that the solution to immigration depends on the source of the immigrants. 

If we want the Communist comedian John Oliver sent back to England, we will have to enlarge the English television market. 

If we want to discourage caravans we can look at why they are immigrating. 

Are we causing it. 

Is there oppression that is unbearable. 

Can we help? 

Can we afford to help? 

Can we afford not to help? 

How much can we tax Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk, Jared Kushner, George Soros, the Koch family the Waltons of Walmart and other multimillionaires without negatively affecting the economy. 

I believe that some emergency kealth care for more vulnerable nations actually makes us safer. 

Yes, we will immunize ourselves first, but sick people can't help themselves or others. 

But immunizing the least fortunate keeps those people's countries'stable and reduces not just the spread of disease. But other after effects like immigration. 

I believe that the solution does not come from deominizing any group, not even Republicans. 

It comes from being aware of best practices and life saving technology and make sure it is used for the greatest good with reasonable efficiency. 


I Want COVID-19 Testing For Everyone, Everywhere 

I Want COVID-19 Testing For Everyone, Everywhere.


Paid sick leave is necessary 

To stop the spread of viruses 

Viruses are really scary 

Cause they mortally infect us. 


Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome - 2(SARS-2) 

Is caused by the COVID-19 virus, 

Through the eyes mouth and nose 

That's how they get themselves inside us, 


It causes coughing, diarhea, fever, chills 

and shortness of breath. 

And if it overtakes your lungs, it can cause your death. 


I want COVID-19 testing for all bus drivers. 

So that they can stay home and not spread it to the riders.

I want COVID 19 testing for all educators,  

Sustitutes, assistants, therapists  teachers and administrators.


Janitors, house cleaners, cooks  and food servers 

Should get the protection that they deserve.

The secretaries and receptionists - who greet us folks at the front desk, 

Should get treated with our  respect

And offered the Novel Coronavirus test. 


I want COVID-19 testing for police officers

Because they don't choose who they get to come into contact with.

They can't refuse to work with someone without a mask.

And many people in the public don't know if they are sick.


And they don't know all the names of all the people that they come in contact with

They could contract COVID from contact with a suspect or a member of the public

All the people served and protected, saved and arrested

Have not been contact traced or COVID19 tested



Everyone who works in crowds put on your mask and get tested

If your job places your health at risk go out and get your self tested.

Protesters, shoppers, hobbyists, panhandlers

Go wash your hands and follow health reminders.


I want COVID-19 testing for airline pilots, 

So that they can know if they are spreading the coronavirus

around the world. in the crowded planes


I want COVID-19 testing for 


Because  everybody needs the expertise of EMTs 

ambulance drivers, doctors and nurses, physician's assistants 

So they can know if they got COVID-19 from their patients. 


I want COVID-19 testing for doctors & dentists 


I want COVID-19 testing for grocery clerks 

So that they can know that it is safe to go to work   

I want COVID-19 testing for prison guards 

I want COVID-19 testing for prisoners in crowded cells 


I want COVID-19 testing for nurses 

I hope that COVID-19 testing flattens and reverses the curve


I want COVID-19 testing for all prisoners. 

I want them to get treatment and be survivors 

I want the sick people to quarantine 

I want medical supplies at the scene 


Yo quiero las pruebas para COVID-19  

para todos en todas partes.


In February 2020  

I felt so bad that I took three days of sick leave 

I knew i was too sick to leave the house 

And concerned that I might be contagious 

I had a fever, labored breathing, achy limbs 

And my throat was coughing just like my student was coughing 


When I felt a whole lot better, I got myself tested for Coronavirus, 

I had to drive 20 minutes to take a test in Puyallup . 

There were people in lab coats in a drive thru tent 

I waited my turn and then pulled up 

They stuck a long cotton swab up my nose 

And told me in three days I would know 

I Was told a few days later that I didn't get the coronavirus 

I felt relieved I wasn't spreading something so catchy and deadly 

I wished that others could get testing cuz if we're healthy then were ready 

To go back to work . 

If we can avoid something deadly 

By knowing where the Coronavirus is spreading 

Then maybe we can get back to work safely and reboot the economy. 

It was paid for by my insurance   


© Greg Spence Wolf 09 14 2020

Updated 9/25/2020 &11//25/2020



I want COVID-19 testing for all grocery clerks.





12:25 Is a story about a school in Houston using distancing for ...



The mask mandates come from the working class. Please respect workers and wear a mask. This is how Trader Joes was forced by their workers to institute social distancing and PPE by the threat of a union strike.

Trump Will Throw You Under The Bus (To the tune of Wheels on the Bus)  


Trump Will Throw You Under The Bus

In order to make himself a quick buck.

He can't be trusted, he's bad luck,

He'll throw you under the bus.


Trump has cheated on all his wives (1)

Trump has cheated all his life.

Trump is a fraud who's been caught

Committing white collar crime.

In New York two times.


The Trumps steal from charliies

That share their name for their own needs,

To pay for his legal fees

Cuz he's the one in need,

Yeah he's the one in need.



Trump Will Throw You Under The Bus 

In order to make himself a quick buck 

He can't be trusted, he's bad luck 

He'll throw you under the bus.


I believe Temple Taggart, Kristin Anderson and   
Jessical Leeds,   

When they say that DJT   

Used them for his own needs   

Obscenly - instead of - romantically. 

Jessica Leeds was on a plane 

And she was offered a better seat 

She was excited to get the upgrade 

Then she met DJT 

In the adjoining seat 

She talked to him while they ate dinner 

Then he lost control of his hands 

When he got his hands on her genitals 

She went back to her original seat 

Where she meant to be


A judge has ordered him to produce 

DNA so they can prove. 

If E Jean Carroll is telling the truth 

When she says that he raped her 

While buying furniture(2) 


When DJT was on a bus 

With Billy Bush, he told us 

That he went down on a bitch 

I forced on her a kiss. 


Trump will put his hand on your cunt

Call you a bitch and try to steal a fuck

He can't be trusted, He's bad luck

Put an unwanted kiss upon your lips

And then he'll throw you under the bus,


Trump has friends who are like him

Greedy men who pimp  and pimp

He said that Epstein was a great guy

Who like beautiful women

Almost as much as him+1


Maria Farmer went to the FBI  

In 1996 to report Epstein's crimes  
She said, "They were so dismissive that I just fealt daunted and I stopped."  

As they brushed her complaint aside.  

Maxwell threatened her life.  

And Epstein continued his crimes. 


If you are in the nightclub  

And you got pussy a to grab  

He'll tell Billy Bush So that they can laugh  

As they get off the bus.


Joe Biden is a decent man

Who doesn't associate with the Klan

Sometimes He's too much of a Republican

But he's got a Coronavirus plan


Joe Biden and Orin Hatch

Wrote The Violence Against Women Act

It protections for victims of abuse

You should support it too.


If you got the Coronavirus

Trump has thrown you under the bus

He's against testing for all of us

He don't think we're worth the fuss



Trump Will Throw You Under The Bus,

In order to make himself a quick buck,

He can't be trusted, he's bad luck,

He'll throw you under the bus.


Ghislaine Maxwell told the teenage girls

That they could be models and gave her a number

She theni ntroduced them to Jeffrey Epstein

Who raped some of those teens



If you were raped as a teen,

By trafficker Jeffrey Epstein,

Donald will not call the police,

He'll say Epstein great guy.

Guiffre worked at Mar a Lago

Where she was recruited by Epstein to give massages

She then got sexually abused

This is how Trump lets his business get used.




If you want to vote by mail

Donald Trump wants you to fail

His followers say "Sigh Heil"

And the US mail is for sale



On the Apprentice he wasnt the boss 

Somebody else was paying the cost 

To pay the reality TV show host

He's throwing us under the bus.


They gave the guy a TV show and all he does is talk

He does not help anybody he doesn't walk the walk

He can't fight his own battles


Virginia Roberts Giuffre 

Tara Reade 

Christine Oxenberg 

Learned about the Lolita Express 

Which Clinton rode when 





Tim Tebow's fund for Human Trafficking



Trump's Election Cheating.


I Want You to Remember Ali Ismaeel Abbas by Greg Spence Wolf 

I Want You to Remember ... Ali Ismael Abbas. 

Ali Ismaeel Abbas lost his arms in an attack, 

An aerial missile attack against the people of Iraq, 

He was twelve when the bombs fell, 

His life matters so I want you to remember. 

He said, “The house collapsed on us. The fire was all over. 

He said "I heard so much screaming from my family." 

“After this one of my neighbours came and took me out .... 

… and put me in a car and sent me to hospital.” 

Ali Ismaeel Abbas lost his mom in an attack 

That was authorized by Congress against the country of Iraq 

She was pregnant when the bombs struck 

Her life matters so I want you to remember 

Ali Ismaeel Abbas lost his dad in an attack 

That was ordered by George Bush against the nation of Iraq 

One of thirteen family member who were killed or dismembered 

Their lives matter so I want you to remember

Justice for Victim's of State and Vigilante Violence. 

Manuel Ellis says, "Can't breathe sir, can't breathe." while dying in Tacoma Police Custody on Tuesday, March 3, 2020.


According to a report in the Tacoma News Tribune; 

On March 3, 2020. Manual Ellis was killed in the custody of the Tacoma Police Department. A recording of the incident reveals him saying at 1:40, "Can't Breath sir. Can't breathe." 




  Amadou Diallo Didn't Have A Gun


Amadou Diallo didn't have a gun 
Amadou Diallo wasn't a threat 
Amadou Diallo didn't hurt anyone 
Amadou Diallo was a target. 
He was shot dead for no good reason 
In the vestibule of his home 


Amadou Diallo lived in the Bronks 
Where he was shot dead by four cops 
When he reached into his wallet 
To pull out his wallet 
Let me tell you about one of those cops 
His name is Kenneth Boss and he's killed before. 
I'm concerned he's going to do it again. 
Unless we take away his badge and his weapon. 
It's a license to kill unarmed black men. 

They were undercover and wearing bulletproogf vests 
"I was wearing blue jeans," one of them said under oath. 
But still they acted like he was the threat. 
And they pumped his body full of lead. 

They didn't shoot him once, 
They didn't shoot him twice, 
They shot him 41 times, 
They weren't content just to tke his life. 
It wasn't self defense it was homicide. 
Amadou Diallo didn't have a gun, 
Amadou Diallo wasn't a threat, 
Amadou Diallo didn't hurt anyone, 
Amadou Diallo hasn't had justice yet. 

After they killed him they shook down his roommate 
We're they trying to find out who his enemies were 
Were they trying to pin it on somebody else 
Were they trying to get away with murder. 
© Greg Spence Wolf 08/30/2020


Eric Garner Was Targetted 

Eric Garner didn't have a gun 
Eric Garner wasn't a threat 
Eric Garner didn't hurt anyone 
Eric Garner was a target 
He was targetted with a choke hold, 
By Daniel Pantalello 
Even after he said, "I can't breath"


The policeman would not let go.

© Greg Spence Wolf 7/7/2020   


Unequal Access to Education in the USA 

School Law Research Paper 

Greg Spence Wolf 

Unequal Access to Education in the USA 

August 26, 2017 

City University -Tacoma 

Alt Routes to Certification 

EDU 321 School Law for Teachers 

Professor Thom Dramer 


Unequal Access to Education in the United States of America 

Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution grants Congress the power to collect taxes provide for the general Welfare of the United States. 

Therefore funding education through taxes is constitutional. 

Amendment 14, Article 1 of the US constitution states, “nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” 

Therefore denying equal access to education is unconstitutional. 

Not all Americans have enjoyed equal protection under the law or equal access to education. This paper focuses on two cases that set major precedents that influenced the law and future court decisions for decades. One ruling Plessy vs Ferguson denied equality to African-Americans and set a precedent that discrimination was allowed by law. 

The later decision, Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka Kansas reversed this flawed decision previous case and established the precedent that discrimination is not legal in the USA. 

“Segregated public schools are not equal and cannot be made equal.”1 was the opinion of the Supreme court on May 17, 1954 when they decided unanimously on Brown vs The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas to forbid school segregation in the United States. 

This case came from five groups of plaintiffs from the States of Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware and the District of Columbia. They were represented by the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund. 2( 

In the ruling Chief Justice Earl Warren pointed out that: “Education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments.” It is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment.”3 

In the court's opinion “Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken 

to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.” 

He concluded with a question: 

“Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities?” 

And an answer: 

“We believe that it does.”4 

Summary of the five cases: 

Brown v. Board of Education: 

“The plaintiffs were Negro children of elementary school age residing in Topeka. They brought this action,” because “of a Kansas statute which,” permitted “cities of more than 15,000 population to maintain separate school facilities for negro and white students.” 5. So, “The Topeka Board of Education elected to establish segregated elementary schools. The three-judge District Court, convened” and 6(28 U.S.C. §§ 2281 and 2284), 

found that segregation in public education has a detrimental effect upon Negro children, but denied relief on the ground that the Negro and white schools were substantially equal with respect to buildings, transportation, curricula, and educational qualifications of teachers.”7 

Briggs v. Elliott: 

The plaintiffs were Negro children of both elementary and high school age. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of South Carolina found that the Negro schools were inferior to the white schools, and ordered the defendants to begin immediately to equalize the facilities. But the court sustained the validity of the contested provisions and denied the plaintiffs admission to the white schools during the equalization program. 8. This Court vacated the District Court's judgment and remanded the case for the purpose of obtaining the court's views on a report filed by the defendants concerning the progress made in the equalization program.” 9 

Davis v. County School Board: 

“The plaintiffs were Negro children of high school age residing in Prince Edward County. They brought this action” because, “of provisions in the state constitution and statutory code which require the segregation of Negroes and whites in public schools. The three-judge District Court, convene,d” an, “denied the requested relief. The court found the Negro school inferior in physical plant, curricula, and transportation, and ordered the defendants forthwith to provide substantially equal curricula and transportation and to proceed with all reasonable diligence and dispatch to remove the inequality in physical plant. But, as in the South Carolina case, the court sustained the validity of the contested provisions and denied the plaintiffs admission to the white schools during the equalization program.10 10(103 F.Supp. 337.) 

Gebhart v. Belto: 

“The plaintiffs were Negro children of both elementary and high school age. They brought this action in the Delaware Court of Chancery,” because “of provisions in the state constitution and statutory code which require the segregation of Negroes and whites in public schools. 11 

The Chancellor gave judgment for the plaintiffs and ordered their immediate admission to schools previously attended only by white children, on the ground that the Negro schools were inferior with respect to teacher training, pupil-teacher ratio, extracurricular activities, physical plant, and time and distance involved in travel. 12(87 A.2d 862.) The Chancellor also found that segregation itself results in an inferior education for Negro children, but did not rest his decision on that ground. The Chancellor's decree was affirmed by the Supreme Court of Delaware, which intimated, however, that the defendants might be able to obtain a modification of the decree after equalization of the Negro and white schools had been accomplished. The defendants, contending only that the Delaware courts had erred in ordering the immediate admission of the Negro plaintiffs to the white schools, applied to this Court for certiorari. The writ was granted, 12 

These decisions reversed Plessy v. Ferguson which was decided on On May 19, 1896 by the Supreme Court. In that case they ruled on a Louisiana law that required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. “In 1892, Homer A. Plessy, a man with one-eighth Negro blood who lived in New Orleans challenged that city's right to segregate public transportation by riding in a Whites Only rail car. The Louisiana state courts ruled against Plessy, and his subsequent appeal to the U. S. Supreme Court was denied in 1896.13 Justice Henry Billings Brown wrote the decision. He conceded that the 14th Amendment intended to establish absolute equality for the races before the law. Then he claimed: 

It could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color 

or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality 

or a commingling of the two races unsatisfactory to either." 

In my opinion Billings is saying that 'white people have the privilege to deny 

black people their rights if they find it unsatisfactory.'14 

The Legal Defense Fund's victory in 1954 did not end segregation or the Supreme Court's involvement in the issue. In Griffin v. County School Bd. of Prince Edward County, the Supreme Court gave relief to the plaintiffs when Prince Edward School District school tried to evade the Warren Court's decision by sending white kids to private schools that discriminated. The court ruled that, “the closing of the Prince Edward County public schools while at the same time giving tuition grants and tax concessions to assist white children in private segregated schools denied petitioners the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.”15 

When asked by Justice Felix Frankfurter during the argument what he meant by "equal," Thurgood Marshall replied, "Equal means getting the same thing, at the same time, and in the same place."16 


Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from 

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from, Art. X, § 2; Del.Rev.Code § 2631 (1935) 

Griffin v. School Board of Prince Edward County. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from Retrieved August 21, 2017 retrieved August 24, 2017 F.Supp. 529. Retrieved August 21, 2017, retrieved, August 21, 2017 

(98 F.Supp. 797 / 

retrieved August 21, 2017) 

Plessy v. Ferguson. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 20, 2017, from 

1(Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from 

2 Retrieved August 21, 2017 

3(Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from 

4 Retrieved August 21, 2017 

5, retrieved, August 21, 2017 

6, retrieved, August 21, 2017 

7(98 F.Supp. 797 / retrieved August 21, 2017) 

8 F.Supp. 529. Retrieved August 21, 2017 

9 retrieve August 21, 2017 

10 28 U.S.C. §§ 2281 and 2284 Retrieved August 21, 2017 

11 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from, Art. X, § 2; Del.Rev.Code § 2631 (1935)) 

12 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from 

13(Plessy v. Ferguson. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 20, 2017, from 

14Plessy v. Ferguson. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from 

15Griffin v. School Board of Prince Edward County. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from 

16 retrieved August 24, 2017